In 2017, we tackled marble quality classification with a grid-based approach, dividing marble slabs into non-intersecting squares and using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify the quality of each section. We began asking ourselves how we might solve this problem in 2024 by using the latest computer vision and deep learning technologies.

The 2017 Approach: Grid-Based CNNs

Our system captured high-resolution images of marble slabs and segmented them into non-intersecting squares. Each section was then classified by a CNN into four quality categories: First, Second, Commercial, and Defective. This approach had limitations in terms of processing time and spatial resolution.

The 2024 Vision: Single Shot Detectors and Segmentation

To overcome the drawbacks of the grid-based approach, a modern solution would employ Single Shot Detectors (SSD) like YOLO (You Only Look Once), which process entire images at once. This change offers several benefits:
  • Efficiency and Faster Processing: Processing the whole image in one pass reduces computational overhead compared to the 2017 approach, which required separate analysis of each grid section. This approach is also significantly faster as it reduces the time to classify marble quality.
  • Improved Spatial Resolution: SSDs can perform more precise analyses since they are not confined to predefined grid sections, allowing for a more detailed understanding of the slab’s quality.

Segmentation for Detailed Quality Mapping

Beyond SSD, turning quality classification into a segmentation challenge can provide more detailed results. This pixel-level approach allows for:
  • Pixel-Level Classification: Each pixel is classified, enabling finer quality maps across the slab. This flexibility leads to improved decision-making when cutting marble slabs.
  • Greater Flexibility: Unlike the 2017 method, segmentation allows for non-square regions, leading to a more refined and adaptive approach to classifying marble quality.

Advanced Neural Network Architectures and Data

These new approaches depend on cutting-edge neural network architectures for both SSDs and segmentation. The latest models deliver improved precision, enhancing overall classification accuracy.However, a critical aspect of these advanced methods is the availability of large and diverse datasets representing various marble types and qualities. To train these AI models effectively, a robust dataset is essential. Unfortunately, gathering such data is challenging, especially for tasks like marble classification, where suitable data may not be readily available. Building a quality dataset often requires extensive data collection by customers or partners, adding complexity to the solution.


By considering advanced AI technologies, such as SSD and segmentation, we theoretically achieve a more efficient, precise, and flexible process for marble quality classification. These potential innovations could lead to improved quality assessment and pave the way for further automation in the stone processing industry. Achieving this vision involves integrating advanced technology, creating robust datasets, and conducting ongoing AI research. This combined approach can help drive accuracy, productivity, and future advancements in smart manufacturing.